Some of the Internet’s early hot spots have not aged well.
There are now more than a billion sites and counting on the web. By comparison, in 1995, the year that saw the launch of both Amazon and AltaVista, there were just 23,500.
Before launching its own website, The New York Times published a “site seeing” guide to the World Wide Web in January 1995, highlighting 26 websites for online rookies to visit.
In April, The Atlantic’s Adrienne LaFrance revisited those early recommendations, only to discover that more than 20 of the sites are no longer online and a handful are only available through archives.
“Most of the URLs the Times printed in 1995 are now dead, including those that led to a guide for backpackers and wilderness trekkers; a livestream of a coffee pot; a Grateful Dead fan page; a map of estuaries; a federal spending website; a hub for online gaming; a gardening site; a site devoted to legislation affecting Massachusetts; Wired’s coverage of legal issues in cyberspace; Berkeley’s Museum of Paleontology; a graphic novel about living with cancer; an illustrated explanation of an infamous flaw in Intel's Pentium chip; a cybermall; a site for making hotel reservations in San Francisco; a site dedicated to subway routes; a virtual frog dissection; a wine-tasting club; a digital...
In this exclusive video from the Internet Hall of Fame archives, 2014 IHOF inductee Susan Estrada describes the 1988 creation of CERFnet, one of the original regional IP networks, and talks about how she and her team built an Internet network that everyone could use. CERFnet logged a number of notable ‘firsts’ for the Internet, including the first commercial network.
Dr. Estrada discusses the challenges of getting people to use the Internet at the time, and shares how a female superhero named ‘Captain Internet’ brought a whole new generation into the digital future through the formation of interconnectivity.
Although Internet development and the technology industry are fields that have been historically dominated by men, there have been some exceptional women who have made their mark, including Susan Estrada.
Estrada in 1988 founded CERFnet, one of the original IP networks that serviced the academic and commercial communities in California. As executive director, she took the initial National Science Foundation funding of $2.8 million and grew the network from 25 sites to hundreds of sites.
Under her leadership, CERFnet also developed a number of notable firsts for the Internet, including the first deployment of dialup IP, accounting reports for customers and high quality service with 24/7 monitoring.
In 1993, she wrote 'Connecting to the Internet, An O’Reilly Buyer’s Guide', a Barnes and Noble bestseller that gave practical advice on how to get the best Internet service.
As head of Aldea Communications, Estrada continues to consult on Internet infrastructure, and to investigate technologies and techniques needed to increase older-adult use of the Internet.
Estrada was named an Internet Hall of Fame Pioneer in 2014...
2013 Internet Hall of Fame inductee Qiheng Hu was a key player in a team that helped China become part of the world’s Internet community. Madame Hu, along with six different organizations in that country, had to figure out how to connect China to the Internet in the absence of high-end supercomputers. In 1986, the U.S. and Japan had agreed not to sell supercomputers to China, so the team faced the challenge of recreating the technology themselves. In 1994, however, Madame Hu attended a scientific collaboration conference in Washington, D.C., and the relationships she formed there paved the way for China’s eventual connectivity. Watch this exclusive interview to hear more about her pioneering story.
One of the problems with today’s Internet is the unpredictable quality of experience and the inability to really determine why that spinning wheel comes up when you are watching, for example, Netflix.
“We need to begin to find ways to link quality of experience and its impairment to the underlying causes so we can disentangle them.… That’s a question that fascinates me,” inductee David Clark said in a recent interview with the Internet Hall of Fame. “If we know what happened, we might be able to fix it.”
When it comes to home networks, for instance, he says, it can be almost impossible at times to figure out what is causing slowdown or disruptions.
“It could be your ISP. It could be a modem that’s about to fail. It could be congestion. It could be a Netflix problem. It could be the link into your house,” he noted.
Clark relayed a story about his own Internet service: calling Comcast to his house to try to diagnose his network issues.
They sent out a technician who turned out to be “profoundly good,” and he figured out there was a two-foot piece of bad coaxial cable.
“The idea of some slight impairment in this cable, manifesting itself as a Netflix spinning wheel— how do you trace that back? How do you get that fixed? This is what we are dealing with and what we have to deal with to take the Internet to the next level,” he said.
“Then we have to get the Internet deployed to the developing world.”