Before Nancy Hafkin came along, Internet in Africa hardly existed.
From the late 1980s until 2000, Hafkin worked for the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), the branch of the United Nations focused on economic development in all countries in Africa. While working in Ethiopia, Hafkin began to notice that information was largely inaccessible on the continent. She decided to tackle that problem by launching the Pan African Development Information System.
“All the countries of the continent were supplying information to databases and we wanted people to access all the information stored in them,” says Hafkin. “At that time there was not a single public library in Ethiopia.”
The databases were set up to exchange data through low-orbit satellites, but at the time the satellites didn’t exist. If someone wanted to share the data, they had to fax it or send it through the mail. One particularly slow exchange of information from Ethiopia to Niger took nine years, Hafkin mentions in her Internet Hall of Fame induction speech. The painfully slow exchange of data pushed Hakfin, and her team to get a digital network set up in Africa.
Hakfin began to establish an Internet communication infrastructure in Africa by building email...
Kilnam Chon brought the internet to Asia. And you’d have to say the move was successful.
In South Korea — where Chon led a research team that installed the first two nodes on Asia’s first internet protocol network — broadband connections are used in over 95 percent of households, a figure that eclipses every other country on earth. Singapore, Taiwan, and Hong Kong aren’t far behind, and all cast a shadow over the US, where broadband reaches about 60 percent of our homes.
Chon is also the founding father of multiple organizations that still drive the Asian internet — including the Asia Pacific Networking Group and Asia Pacific Top Level Domain Name Forum — and earlier this year, in recognition of his role in bringing the continent online, he was inducted into the inaugural class of the Internet Society’s (ISOC) Internet Hall of Fame, alongside such as names as Vint Cerf,...
Before GoDaddy and Network Solutions and VeriSign, there was Elizabeth Feinler and the NIC.
From 1972 to 1989, Elizabeth “Jake” Feinler ran the Network Information Center at the Stanford Research Institute in Menlo Park, California — the place that oversaw the use of internet addresses before the arrival of commercial outfits such as GoDaddy and Network Solutions. If you wanted a domain name, you came to Jake.
The NIC was also the place that published the documentation and directories for the internet — well before it was called the internet. The Stanford Research Center, or SRI, was one of the original nodes on the ARPAnet — a network backed by the US Department of Defense that connected various research centers across the country — and in building the NIC and running it for 17 years, Feinler was among a small group of researchers who bootstrapped this government network into something that would one day connect one third of the world’s population.
Earlier this year, Elizabeth Feinler was inducted into the inaugural class of the...
Sir Tim Berners-Lee is the reason you’re reading this story in a web browser, complete with hypertext and an internet address that looks like this: http://www.wired.com/wiredenterprise/2012/06/sir-tim-berners-lee/. But you weren’t supposed to see the address.
In building the first web browser at Switzerland’s CERN nuclear research lab in the early ’90s, the English-born Berners-Lee designed a system where only the technicians behind the scenes would see addresses. The ordinary web user would only see text and hypertext, jumping from page to page without ever typing on a keyboard.
“On the initial design of the web, you didn’t see the http:// when you were a user. You just read text and you clicked on links,” Berners-Lee tells Wired. “In the original web browser, you had to bring up a special link inspector to see addresses. That’s why I wasn’t worried about http:// being ugly. No one would really see it.”
As the web grew, this particular vision was lost — at least in part. But you’d have to say that the web still exceeded expectations. In 2010, according to the International Telecommunication Union, close to a third of the world’s population was using the web, and after beginning life as a means of merely sharing text, it has evolved into a medium that shares everything...
All Van Jacobson wanted to do was upload a few documents to the internet. Unfortunately, it was 1985.
The internet wasn’t yet called the internet. It was called the ARPAnet, and it had only recently been upgraded to the TCP/IP protocol that still underpins the internet today. Jacobson was teaching a computer science course at the University of California at Berkeley, and all he wanted to do was upload some class materials to Berkeley’s computers so his students could read them. But the internet wasn’t really working. The network throughput was about a bit per second. In other words, it was slow as molasses.
“I was getting a bit per second between two network gateways that were literally in the same room,” Jacobson remembers.
For the next six months, Jacobson — together with Mike Karels, who oversaw Berkeley’s BSD UNIX operating system — worked to solve this internet traffic jam, and the result was an update to TCP that is widely hailed as averting an internet meltdown in the late 80s and early 90s. The soft-spoken Jacobson doesn’t see it that way, but his pioneering work with the internet’s underlying protocols recently earned him a spot in the inaugural class of the Internet Society’s (ISOC) Internet Hall of Fame, alongside such as names as Vint Cerf, Steve Crocker, and Tim Berners-Lee.
In 1985, Berkeley ran one of the IMPs, or interface message processors, that served as the main nodes on the ARPAnet, a network funded by the U.S. Department...